Australia 1926 /1928 – 1998
Warmun (Turkey Creek), Kimberley, Western Australia, Australia
Materials & Technique: paintings, natural earth pigments and binder on canvas
Rover Thomas’s experience of growing up in the Kimberley was common to that of most Aboriginal people of the area and adjacent deserts, but his impact on the region, and on Australian art, is immeasurable.
Europeans colonised the region late in the nineteenth century, to mine gold, dive for pearls and raise cattle. Relationships between the Indigenous inhabitants and the new settlers were uneven and in many cases conflicts ensued, usually over newly introduced livestock which polluted freshwater sources and drove away the game on which Aboriginal people relied as their main source of protein. Eventually, most local Aboriginal people took to working for the settler ranch owners. These circumstances had at least one positive outcome: people could maintain connections with their ancestral lands where they were able to conduct ceremonies and continue traditional practices and retain language, although they were paid a pittance for their considerable contribution.
When he was a lad, Thomas was taken from his home in the Great Sandy Desert, north along the Canning Stock Route, to work on cattle stations in the eastern Kimberley, where he spent some 40 years as a stockman and fencer. However by the late 1960s and early 1970s, a number of social and cultural upheavals occurred across the Kimberley: cattle-station owners dismissed hundreds of Aboriginal workers who moved to the fringes of white townships where they established camps, and ceremonial life was on the wane. Then on Christmas Eve 1974, Cyclone Tracy destroyed Darwin. The city was regarded by Aboriginal people of the Kimberley as the centre of European culture and, as cyclones, rain and storms are usually associated with ancestral Rainbow Serpents, elders interpreted the event as the ancestors warning Aboriginal people to reinvigorate their cultural practices.
Consequently a number of ceremonies were performed for a lay public in an act of cultural affirmation. By 1975 Thomas had settled at Warmun and here he had a dream visitation by the spirit of an aunt who had died as a result of injuries sustained in a car crash on a road flooded by Cyclone Tracy. The woman was being flown to hospital in Perth but she died when the aeroplane was above Broome in the western Kimberley. From here her spirit travelled across the Kimberley, visiting sacred and historical sites along the way until she reached her home in the east where she witnessed the Rainbow Serpent destroying Darwin. The narrative became the basis for the Kurirr Kurirr ceremony that the spirit of Thomas’s aunt had revealed to him.
By tradition, Thomas did not paint any of the early boards carried by performers in the Kurirr Kurirr—this responsibility fell to his uncle, Paddy Jaminji, who was the first of the Kurirr Kurirr painters. Between them, these two artists were the leading figures in the establishment of the modern East Kimberley painting movement, which is now known worldwide.
The paintings made for the Kurirr Kurirr were usually composed of a few basic shapes, as their meanings would be elaborated in the ceremony. Paintings related to the narrative of the cyclone but not made for use in ceremony tend to be more complex: the original icon for Cyclone Tracy over Darwin approximates a simple bold U-shape; however Thomas’s large canvas, Cyclone Tracy 1991, painted separately to the ceremony, displays a further articulation of the shape of the cyclone and the winds carrying the dust and sand that feed into it.
As the East Kimberley painting movement gained momentum, artists tackled subjects beyond those associated with the Kurirr Kurirr. Episodes from the modern history of the region, little known beyond its boundaries, are a common theme. Thomas painted several works about massacres of Aboriginal people in the eastern Kimberley that occurred until the 1920s. A discussion between the artist and curators at the National Gallery in 1990 led to Thomas creating a series of works about three major incidents, including the Texas Downs killings of the early 1910s. One hid under the bullock’s hide 1991 relates to an armed attack on a group of Aboriginal men who had stolen and were butchering several bullocks: one man escaped the shooting party by hiding inside the carcass of one of the cattle.
Nonetheless, Rover Thomas had a fond nostalgia for Texas Downs. All that big rain coming from topside 1991 depicts a waterfall on the station. Thomas and his co-workers would seek relief from the long, hot and humid days of hard mustering in the wet season to ‘holiday’ at this waterfall, where the caves in the cliff face provided shelter. The place is also the site of a tragedy. Thomas tells of an occasion when a group of people sought refuge from a violent thunderstorm in one of the caves at the waterfall. A bolt of lighting struck the cave and the roof collapsed, killing everyone.
The upper half of the painting shows channels of water running to the cliff’s edge and then falling down the side of the hill. In the lower section, the brushy application of the yellow pigment combined with the varying density of paint produce a sense of light shining through the cascading torrents of water. The work is an outstanding example of Thomas’s intuitive, painterly skill—a master’s touch.
Text © National Gallery of Australia, Canberra 2010
From: Franchesca Cubillo and Wally Caruana (eds) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Art: collection highlights National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, 2010
In the early hours of 25 December 1974, Cyclone Tracy destroyed or severely damaged around 70 per cent of Darwin. While 65 deaths were recorded, an unknown number of the transient population, particularly Aboriginal people, also died in this tragedy and thousands were evacuated. Elders in the Kimberley region interpreted the cyclone as the Rainbow Serpent’s warning to Aboriginal people to strengthen their culture; as a result, ceremonies were performed as acts of cultural affirmation.
Although this painting is not part of the Kurirr Kurirr ceremony and song cycle, it relates to it. In 1975 the Kurirr Kurirr narrative was revealed to Rover Thomas through visitations in dreams, where the spirit of his classificatory mother (a Kija/Wula speaker) described her journey after death—which occurred just before the cyclone struck. Seriously injured in a road accident near Warmun (Turkey Creek), she was evacuated by the Royal Flying Doctor Service, but died as the plane flew over the site of the whirlpool Tawurrkurima/Jintiripul—the abode and physical manifestation of Juntarkal, one of the ancestral Rainbow Serpents that imbue the Kimberley landscape with eternal life force.
The deceased woman’s spirit described to Thomas the sites over which she travelled with two companion spirits—sites of sacred or historical importance across the Kimberley. Looking north-east from Kununurra the spirits witnessed the destruction of Darwin by a Rainbow Serpent in the guise of Cyclone Tracy.
In Thomas's painting the dominant black form of the cyclone gains in intensity as it heads towards Darwin, with minor winds carrying red dust and yellow sand, feeding into it.
Text © National Gallery of Australia, Canberra 2014
From: Collection highlights: National Gallery of Australia, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, 2014
托马斯[朱拉玛]·罗夫 (THOMAS [JOOLAMA], Rover)
168.00(高) x 180.00(宽)厘米
随着东金伯利(East Kimberley)绘画运动的深入发展，艺术家涉猎关乎Kurirr Kurirr之外的主题。外面世界鲜为人知的本地区近代历史事件是常见主题。托马斯有几幅作品涉及直到1920年代还在东金伯利发生的屠杀原住民事件。1990年，与国家美术馆馆长之间一场讨论之后，托马斯就包括1910年代初德克萨斯平原(Texas Downs)杀戮事件在内的三个重大事件创作了系列作品。创作于1991年的《藏身小牛皮下(One hid under the bullock’s hide)》(上一页)涉及武装袭击一群偷盗并在屠宰几头小牛的原住民男子：一名男子藏身牛的尸体逃脱了猎杀事件。
然而罗夫·托马斯却对德克萨斯平原怀有浓浓的乡愁。创作于1991年的《天降暴雨》(All that big rain coming from topside)描绘了养殖场的瀑布。雨季的白天漫长、炎热且潮湿，艰难地将牛群赶拢后，托马斯和工友们去瀑布“纳凉”，寻求缓解一天的疲劳，悬崖上的洞穴提供了栖身场所。这儿也是惨案现场。托马斯描述了一起事件，为了躲避暴风雨，一群人藏进了瀑布的一处洞穴。一道闪电击中洞穴，洞顶崩塌，无人幸免于难。
Text © National Gallery of Australia, Canberra
This is a painting by Kukatja/Wangkajunga artist Rover Thomas (Joolama) (c1926-98) depicting the cyclone that destroyed Darwin on 24-25 December 1974. The painting is shown as an enlargeable image and in a video. Text onscreen gives information about Thomas’s life, paintings and the Kurrirr Kurrirr ceremony, and describes how the artist articulated the shape of the cyclone and the winds carrying dust and sand into its centre. The video soundtrack tells of dream visitations to the artist by his deceased aunt describing her spirit journey in which she sees a Rainbow Serpent destroying Darwin. The painting measures 168.0 cm high x 180 cm wide and was painted using natural earth pigments.
Text © National Gallery of Australia, Canberra