Long Jack PHILLIPUS TJAKAMARRA, Water course Enlarge 1 /1

On display on Level 1

Long Jack PHILLIPUS TJAKAMARRA

Luritja/Warlpiri peoples

Kalipinya, near Kintore, Northern Territory, Australia born 1932

Water course [Four streams (No.10)] 1972
Collection Title: The Peter Fannin Collection of Early Western Desert Paintings
Place made: Papunya, Western Desert, Northern Territory, Australia
Creation Notes: October/ November 1972
Materials & Technique: paintings, synthetic polymer powder paint on composition board

Dimensions: 53.0 h x 47.0 w cm
Acknowledgement: The Peter Fannin Collection of Early Western Desert Paintings, 1998
Accession No: NGA 98.113
Image rights: © the estate of the artist licensed by Aboriginal Artists Agency Ltd

Long Jack Phillipus Tjakamarrais one of the last surviving founding members of the original group of painters at Papunya in 1971. He was one of the artists to paint the murals on the Papunya school walls, which proved to be the catalyst for the painting movement that became known as the Western Desert style of painting. Tjakamarra lived a traditional lifestyle out in the bush west of Mount Farewell prior to moving first to Ikuntji (Haasts Bluff) then to the Papunya settlement. He was nicknamed ‘Long Jack’ because of his unusual tallness and, like many men in the local community, he worked as a stockman, gardener, timber cutter and artist. Although he became a Lutheran pastor in 1984, he continues to be an important ceremonial figure and to maintain his traditional cultural practices.

Kalipinypa is a major Rain or Water Dreaming site north of Walungurru (Kintore) and is one of the main sites painted by Long Jack and a number of other Papunya artists (including Walter Tjampitjinpa and Johnny Warangkula Tjupurrula, in particular). The two paintings here are indicative of the early stages of the Papunya movement, with their tightly restricted palettes and bold graphic designs that refer to body decorations and ceremonial ground paintings.

In Water course Tjakamarra alludes to the different levels of rain intensity during the wet season through the strong wavy lines, each with a tri-colour banding of white, black and khaki green. Waterholes of red concentric circles each have their own black line separating the varying concentration of white dots to one side and white bands of hatching on the other. The designs flow across the painting’s surface as water flows across the land.

Kalipinypa Water Dreaming tells of a significant rain-making ceremony to produce thunderstorms. It features the conventional ground painting design for Water or Rain Dreamings­: the set of three clusters of roundels joined by parallel meanders running vertically down the picture. Tjakamarra’s delicate palette of musk pink and red, which relates to ceremonial paint, lends this work a visual subtlety. Kalipinypa is an electrifying storm site bringing lightning and thunderous downpours. The much-needed rains fill interconnecting creeks and rockholes. This abundant water in turn transforms the countryside, creating new growth across the lands and ensuring the ongoing cycle of life. The water, flowing from rockhole to rockhole, creates an essential resource for survival.

Tina Baum


Text © National Gallery of Australia, Canberra 2010
From: Franchesca Cubillo and Wally Caruana (eds) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Art: collection highlights National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, 2010

长杰克·菲利普斯·加卡马拉 (Long Jack PHILLIPUS TJAKAMARRA)
1932年出生于澳大利亚北领地西部沙漠
《河道》(Water course)
1972年
复合板,合成聚合物粉末涂料
53.0(高) x 47.0(宽)厘米
1998年彼得·范宁(Peter Fannin)收藏的早期西部沙漠画
收录号:NGA 98.113

长杰克·菲利普斯·加卡马拉(Long Jack Phillipus Tjakamarra)是1971年帕普尼亚艺术家协会的创会成员,也是为数不多仍然世的成员之一。他也参与了在帕普尼亚学校墙壁上的壁画创作,事实证明,这些壁画催生了以西部沙漠画风而著称的绘画运动。移居艾坤吉(Ikuntji)(也称哈斯特布拉夫[Haasts Bluff])之前,加卡马拉在费尔韦尔山(Mount Farewell)以西的乡村地区过着传统的生活,之后迁往帕普尼亚定居点。由于个子太高,才有了绰号“长杰克”,像当地社区很多男子一样,他当过畜牧场工、花匠、伐木工和艺术家。虽然他于1984年成为路德教牧师,但依然是重要的仪式人物并保持自身传统的文化习俗。

卡里皮尼帕(Kalipinypa)是瓦伦咕噜(Walungurru)(金托尔[Kintore])以北一个重要的雨梦幻地,亦称水梦幻地,是长杰克和帕普尼亚大量其他艺术家(尤其包括沃尔特·加姆皮金帕[Walter Tjampitjinpa]和约翰尼·瓦让库拉·居普努拉[Johnny Warangkula Tjupurrula])写生的主要场所之一。这两幅作品用色严谨,与人体装饰和仪式地面画相关的平面设计大胆,体现了帕普尼亚绘画运动早期阶段的特征。

在《河道》中,加卡马拉借强劲的波纹线,均为白、黑和卡其绿构成的三色带,暗指湿季期间不同程度的降雨强度。红色同心圆圈代表水坑,各圆圈均有各自的黑线,将集中一侧变化的白色斑点与另一侧的白色剖面线带分开。流淌于画面的图案象征大地上的流水。

《卡里皮尼帕水梦幻》(Kalipinypa Water Dreaming)讲述的是制造雷阵雨的重大求雨仪式。画面突显用于水梦幻或雨梦幻的传统地面花图案:画面由上而下的平行曲流连接三组排列成串的小圆盘。加卡马拉使用与仪式颜料相关的麝香粉红和红色进行精妙配色,为作品增添了微妙的视觉效果。卡里皮尼帕是惊人暴风雨之地,带来雷鸣闪电和倾盆大雨。迫切需要的雨水充盈相互连接的溪流与岩洞。反过来,丰富的水源让乡间田野旧貌换新颜,在大地上缔造出新生命,保证了生生不息的生命循环;从岩洞流往岩洞的水创造了重要的生命之源。

Tina Baum
蒂娜·鲍姆


Text © National Gallery of Australia, Canberra