, Celestial maiden [surasundari] Enlarge 1 /1

On display on Level 1

Rajasthan, India

Celestial maiden [surasundari] 12th century Materials & Technique: sculptures, sandstone
Dimensions: 83.0 h x 32.1 w x 21.2 d cm
Acknowledgement: Purchased with the assistance of Roslyn Packer AO, 2011
Accession No: NGA 2011.1324
  • The supplied chain of ownership for this object is being reviewed and further research is underway. The provenance information listed has been substantiated by documentation. Details may be refined and updated as research progresses.
  • with a private collector, Switzerland, 1970 or 71
  • with art dealer, Switzerland; from whom bought by another private Swiss collector, 1982
  • with art dealership Panasia Gallery, Zurich
  • which sold it to the National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, 2011 for CHF 676,000

More detail

The Hindu and Jain temples of medieval India are richly adorned with heavenly dancers (apsaras), mythical serpent beings (nagas), amorous couples (mithuna) and other divinities. Present around and within temples, these figures are essential components of the sacred architecture, serving to protect structures and award favour to gods and their devotees.

This overtly sensuous celestial maiden (surasundari) was created as an ornate ceiling bracket and, alongside other brackets of its type, likely surrounded a lotus ceiling. The nymph’s prominent breasts and hips, tiny waist and lean limbs epitomise an ideal of female beauty, fertility and abundance in Indian art. The exaggerated bend of the torso at the waist and the combination of semi-profile and full frontal pose were devices employed by sculptors to emphasise voluptuous curves. They also served to accommodate the perspective from which the final image would be viewed. The straight, angular style of the legs is a distinctive feature of northern Indian medieval figurative sculpture.

Carved from sandstone, the surasundari wears elaborate jewellery—heavy earrings, bangles, anklets, hair ornaments and a multitude of chains—to signify her heavenly status. The nymph’s only garment is the sash that cascades onto the tiny attendant kneeling at her feet. In her left hand is a manuscript ribbon, an indication of learning and courtly skills. The ribbon, which could not have been read once the sculpture was installed as a ceiling bracket, is inscribed with the words, ‘Shri Somadevaya’.

Text © National Gallery of Australia, Canberra 2014
From: Collection highlights: National Gallery of Australia, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, 2014