Jonnie DAYNGANANGGANLIPUNDJA 2Billy DJOMATony DJIKULULUTony YAWATIJimmy MAMALUNHAWUYJimmy WULULUDJIMBARRDJIMBARRWUY, Milingimbi Easter panel Enlarge 1 /1

On display on Level 1

Jonnie DAYNGANANGGAN

Gupapuyngu people

Australia born 1892 – unknown

attributed to

LIPUNDJA 2

Gupapuyngu people

Australia born 1932 – unknown

attributed to

Billy DJOMA

Gupapuyngu people

Australia born 1927 – Unknown

attributed to

Tony DJIKULULU

Gupapuyngu people

Australia 1938 – 1992

attributed to

Tony YAWATI

Gupapuyngu people

Australia born 1931 – unknown

attributed to

Jimmy MAMALUNHAWUY

Gupapuyngu people

Australia 1934 – 1992

attributed to

Jimmy WULULU

Gupapuyngu people

Australia 1936 – 2005

attributed to

DJIMBARRDJIMBARRWUY

Gupapuyngu people

Australia unknown – unknown

attributed to

Milingimbi Easter panel c.1965 Place made: Milingimbi, Central Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia
Creation Notes: Panel created c. 1965, Milingimbi, central Arnhem Land, Northern Territory
Materials & Technique: paintings, natural earth pigment and natural binder on composition board

Dimensions: 183.0 h x 183.0 w cm
Acknowledgement: Purchased 2006
Accession No: NGA 2006.670
Image rights: © the artist licensed by Aboriginal Artists Agency Ltd

A Methodist mission was established on the island of Milingimbi, off the central Arnhem Land coast, in 1923. The mission encouraged the continuation of Aboriginal religious customs alongside Christian doctrine. By the 1960s there was an increasing demand for bark paintings by the local artists; while these usually depicted traditional subjects, the Milingimbi Easter panel c 1965 is unique.

Painted by several leading Yirritja moiety artists, it is one of two prepared as a backdrop for an Easter pageant in the Methodist church and depicts the crucifixion, on the right, and the resurrection of Christ, on the left. A second painting was prepared by artists of the Dhuwa moiety depicting the crucifixion and the burial of Christ; unfortunately its whereabouts are unknown. Each painting was prepared on half of a folding plywood table-tennis top, the most readily available surface at the time.

The artists decided on the contents and detail of each panel to best utilise the space available while focusing on the central theme. Members of Christ’s family, his friends and disciples have been omitted from the crucifixion scene, but they are included in the resurrection panel complete with pots of ointments to embalm the body, along with angels depicted by feathered tassels on their arms. Soldiers with weapons figure prominently in both panels, those of higher rank designated by headdresses and sword scabbards attached to belts.

The painting reflects the usual style and perspective of the Milingimbi area. The larger the figure or object, the more important it is: the crucified Christ and thieves and the hammer and nail in the crucifixion panel; the women with their pots visiting the sepulchre; and the shaft of white light highlighting the discarded grave clothes and rolled-away stone in the resurrection panel.

The bands of triangular and diamond symbols around the crucifixion panel and on the horizontal arm of the cross signify Yirritja authorship. The coloured and crosshatched triangles represent storm clouds and rocks from the Birrkili clan mortuary ceremony. The linked diamonds symbolise the cells of the wild honeybee hive which is a central feature of the sacred age-grading Birrkulda ceremony.

The Easter panels were inspired by the Dhuwa and Yirritja panels that were painted for the mission church at Yirrkala in 1963.[1] Unlike these, the Milingimbi paintings were not intended for permanent display—the stained glass window in the Milingimbi church served that function.

Alan Fidock

[1] These are on display in the museum at the Buku-Larrnggay Mulka Centre at the community of Yirrkala in north-east Arnhem Land.


Text © National Gallery of Australia, Canberra 2010
From: Franchesca Cubillo and Wally Caruana (eds) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Art: collection highlights National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, 2010

琼尼·代甘那甘 (Jonnie DAYNGANANGGAN)、
里庞加 2 (LIPUNDJA 2)、
比利·朱玛 (Billy DJOMA)、
托尼·吉库鲁鲁 (Tony DJIKULULU)、
托尼·雅瓦迪 (Tony YAWATI)、
吉米·玛玛伦哈乌衣 (Jimmy MAMALUNHAWUY)、
吉米·乌鲁鲁 (Jimmy WULULU)、
金巴金巴维 (DJIMBARRDJIMBARRWUY)
《米灵金比复活节嵌板》(Milingimbi Easter panel)
约1965年
澳大利亚北领地中阿纳姆地米灵金比
绘画,复合板材料,天然颜料和天然粘合剂
183.0 (高) x 183.0 (宽)厘米
2006年购买
收录号:NGA 2006.670
©土著艺术家协会特许艺术家不动产

1923年,与中阿纳姆地隔海相望的米灵金比岛上组建了一个卫理公会布道所。布道所在宣传基督教教义的同时鼓励延续土著宗教习俗。时至1960年代,当地艺术家对树皮画的需求持续增长;而这些树皮画描绘的往往是传统主题,约创作于1965年的《米灵金比复活节嵌板》与众不同。

作品由几位知名的伊瑞加(Yirritja)艺术家创作而成,一幅画分两部分准备,用作卫理公会教堂复活节盛会的背景幕,右半部分描绘的是基督受难,左半部分描绘的是基督复活。第二幅画由胡瓦(Dhuwa)部艺术家准备,描绘基督的受难与葬礼;遗憾的是,这幅画已不知所踪。各幅画分别在可折叠胶合板乒乓球桌的半面上绘制,这是当时最容易获得的画板。

艺术家决定各嵌板的绘画内容与细节,以便在不失中心主题核心的前提下充分利用已有空间。受难场景省去了基督的家庭成员、朋友和门徒,但他们均出现在复活嵌板中,还有用于尸体防腐的全套药膏罐,以及用羽毛流苏描绘在他们手臂上的天使。两块嵌板都凸显了手持武器的士兵,头饰巾和悬挂在皮带上的剑鞘,辨明了级别更高的士兵。

绘画反映了米灵金比地区常见的风格与视角。人物或物体越大越重要:受难嵌板中被钉在十字架上的基督和小偷以及锤子与钉子;带着盆罐前往圣体安放之所的妇女;以及复活嵌板中照亮遗弃寿衣的白色光束和撬开的石头。

受难嵌板四周以及十字架水平条上的三角形和棱形符号带表明伊瑞加艺术家的身份。着色和阴影三角形代表雨云和取自伯吉利宗族葬礼仪式的石头。相连的棱形象征野蜂巢的蜂房,这是神圣的伯库达(Birrkulda)年龄标记仪式的核心要素。

复活节嵌板的创作灵感源于1963年为伊尔库拉(Yirrkala)教会绘制的胡瓦和伊瑞加嵌板。与这些嵌板不同的是,米灵金比画的绘制不是用于长期摆放——那是米灵金比教堂彩色玻璃窗的事。

Alan Fidock
艾伦·斐多克


Text © National Gallery of Australia, Canberra

Description

This is a painting by several leading artists of the Gupapuyngu clan of the Yolngu people depicting the crucifixion of Christ on the right, and his resurrection on the left. The painting is shown as an enlargeable image and in a video. Text onscreen gives contextual information about the Methodist mission established on Milingimbi Island, off the north coast of Central Arnhem Land, where the work was created, as well as providing a strong visual analysis, explaining the content and detail of the panel. The video soundtrack tells of the specific painting style and the intertwining of Christian doctrine and Aboriginal customs. The painting measures 183.0 cm high x 183.0 cm wide and was painted using natural earth pigment and natural binder on composition board.

Educational value

  • This is an excellent resource for the Responding strand in the 7-8 and 9-10 year bands in the visual arts curriculum, especially for those content descriptions that refer to considering the broader context of works of art, such as their social, cultural and historical context and role of the artist and of the audience/s. It may also be useful for teachers of history in year 4 particularly in relation to content descriptions about the nature of contact between Aboriginal people and Europeans and the effects and outcomes of this contact.
  • The work is of considerable significance for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures cross-curriculum priority. It exemplifies one of the priority’s organising ideas in relation to Aboriginal peoples: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have unique belief systems. This resource also highlights the second key concept which examines the diversity of Aboriginal Peoples’ culture through ways of life and experiences as expressed through historical lenses.

Text © National Gallery of Australia, Canberra